Year 3 Course Descriptions

Fall Term Required Courses

PHM301H1 Pharmacotherapy 6:  Hematology, Oncology and Immunotherapies

PHM302H1 Pharmacotherapy 7:  Neuropsychiatry

PHM305H1 Medication Therapy Management 4

PHM310H1 Health Systems II

PHM330H1 Preparation for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

PHM340H1 Introductory Toxicology

 

Fall Term Elective Courses

Students enroll in one of the following elective courses:

PHM320H1 Global Pharmaceutical Policy

PHM321H1 Selected Topics in the Pharmaceutical Industry

PHM323H1 Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Action

PHM325H1 Aboriginal Issues in Health and Healing

PHM383H1 Antimicrobial Stewardship

PHM389H1 Research Project

 

Winter Term Selective Courses

Students enroll in one of the following selective courses:

PHM350H1 Pharmacotherapy in Ambulatory Care

PHM351H1 Pharmacotherapy in Institutional Care

PHM353H1 Pharmacotherapy in Critical Care

 

Students enroll in one of the following selective courses:

PHM352H1 Pharmacotherapy in Older Adults

PHM354H1 Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics

PHM355H1 Pharmacotherapy in Women’s Health

 

Students enroll in one of the following selective courses:

PHM360H1 Personalized Medicine

PHM361H1 Latest Developments in Drugs and Biologics

PHM362H1 Assessing the Bioavailability and Bioequivalence of Medicinal Drug Products

 

Students enroll in one of the following selective courses:

PHM370H1 Community Pharmacy Management

PHM371H1 Institutional Pharmacy Practice Management

 

Winter Term Elective Courses

Students enroll in two of the following elective courses:

PHM322H1 Patient/Medication Safety

PHM381H1 Medical Imaging for Pharmacists

PHM382H1 Nanomedicines in Oncology

PHM384H1 Teaching and Learning

PHM385H1 Diabetes Care

PHM386H1 Mental Health and Addiction

PHM387H1 Global Health

PHM388H1 Minor Ailments

PHM389H1 Research Project

PHM391H1 Current Compounding Topics and Practice Issues

 

Course Descriptions

Fall Term Required Courses
PHM301H1 Pharmacotherapy 6:  Hematology, Oncology and Immunotherapies

This course is designed to provide pharmacy students with the pathobiology, pharmacology, pharmacotherapy and clinical pharmacokinetics required to be a practitioner in oncology, hematology and immunology therapeutics.  The course will be taught using a variety of techniques including on-line lectures, case-based learning and small interactive group learning.Prerequisite:    PHM101H1; PHM105H1; PHM113H1; PHM140H1; PHM141H1; PHM142H1; PHM143H1; PHM144H1; PHM145H1; PHM146H1; PHM201H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1; PHM205H1; PHM206H1; PSL205H1

Co-requisite:    PHM302H1; PHM305H1

PHM302H1 Pharmacotherapy 7:  Neuropsychiatry

This course is designed to provide pharmacy students with the knowledge in pathobiology, pharmacology, pharmacotherapy and clinical pharmacokinetics required to be a practitioner in neuropsychiatric therapeutics.  The course may be taught using a variety of techniques including on-line lectures, case-based learning and small interactive group learning.Prerequisite:    PHM101H1; PHM113H1; PHM140H1; PHM141H1; PHM142H1; PHM143H1; PHM144H1; PHM145H1; PHM146H1; PHM212H1; PSL205H1

PHM305H1 Medication Therapy Management 4

Medication Therapy Management 4 (MTM 4) is the final course in a four-part course series that is delivered longitudinally over three years of the undergraduate program. MTM 4 builds on the skills developed in previous MTM courses, offering students opportunities to apply and integrate materials learned through all courses in the curriculum to date. This course focuses on the development of skills required for Expanded Scope of Practice (renewing, modifying and initiating pharmacotherapy) and specifically medication reconciliation.  Lectures and applied Simulated Practice Sessions emphasize the pharmacists’ role and responsibilities as a communicator, care provider, collaborator and advocate, to prepare students for their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience rotations.

Prerequisite:       PHM101H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1; PHM206H1; PHM251H1

Co-requisite:      PHM301H1; PHM302H1; PHM310H1

PHM310H1 Health Systems II

This course will take an issues-oriented, critical-thinking approach to the healthcare system, with a particular emphasis on pharmacy practice.  The course will build on the material from PHM110H1, PHM114H1 and PHM215H1, and will allow a deeper look into areas such as quality and patient safety, e-health technology and the health care needs of diverse populations. Students will also have an opportunity to explore the role of interprofessional collaboration in health care delivery. By following week by week the members of a virtual Canadian family as they navigate the healthcare system, students will examine issues with drug supply and access, pharmacy practice reform, expanded services, collaborative care and reimbursement models, and the interconnectivity of the disparate parts of the health care system.  In addition to looking at health systems issues related to pharmacy practice in Canada, this course will include international comparisons between the Canadian system and the systems of the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. By participating in class discussions, reading course reference materials and completing assignments, students will learn to identify and analyze current and emerging health system issues from key stakeholder perspectives. In the course of doing so, they will also become aware of, understand and appreciate:

  • factors internal and external to pharmacy and medication use that drive change in practice
  • current strategies for evaluating and improving health care and pharmacy practice
  • the role of interprofessional collaboration in the delivery of healthcare
  • emerging roles and opportunities in pharmacy.

Prerequisite:    PHM110H1; PHM114H1; PHM213H1; PHM215H1

PHM330H1 Preparation for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

The Preparation for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) course is designed to strengthen and integrate students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes in preparation for, and make the transition to, APPE rotations. This course, via lectures, workshops, case-based role play activities and related assignments and assessments, will enable students to review, build on, consolidate and apply previous knowledge, skills and behaviours acquired throughout the curriculum in academic courses and in earlier experiential rotations in the areas of patient care provision, communication, collaboration, management, advocacy, scholarship, and professionalism. (CanMEDS, 2005, AFPC, 2010). The goal of this course is to engender students’ practical skills and strategies to help prepare them for the role of advanced pharmacy practice students.

PHM340H1 Introductory Toxicology

Concerned primarily with drug-induced diseases, this lecture course provides students with a conceptual framework for understanding the broad spectrum of toxicological problems encountered in clinical practice, in drug development and regulation, and in medical research.  Central biochemical mechanisms and the relevance of clinical factors to toxicological expression will be integrated and applied to illustrative models of drug-related diseases in humans.

Prerequisite:    PHM140H1, PHM142H1, PHM143H1, PHM144H1, PHM145H1, PSL205H1

Fall Term Elective Courses

PHM320H1 Global Pharmaceutical Policy

This course is designed for students who are curious to learn about pharmaceutical public policy at the global level and also to explore the interrelationship between global and domestic health public policy issues, particularly those related to political economy and the governance of the pharmaceutical system. There are no prerequisites required but students are strongly recommended to have taken at least one social science or public health course given the ample reading and research requirements. Particular emphasis will be placed on how governments in different jurisdictions manage their public health responsibilities, particularly in terms of providing access to essential medicines and human development objectives, the tension between economic and health objectives, global trade obligations and their impact on access to medicines, and how pressure from special interest groups are relevant to pharmaceutical policy. Corruption issues will also be addressed. This course encourages a large amount of student participation through group work, discussion, presentations, and debate. Accordingly, students will need to keep up with the weekly readings in order to ensure that they are prepared for the class.

PHM321H1 Selected Topics in the Pharmaceutical Industry

This course is designed to expose students to the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries, its environment, inner workings, and approach to engaging customers and stakeholders. The course outlines the business model of the industry and covers both drug development and commercialization, from international and Canadian perspectives. The course is intended to broaden the students’ understanding of the industry, introduce critical concepts and terminology, build confidence and prepare students who may seek a career in the industry.

PHM323H1 Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Action

The proteins and nucleic acids that are the targets of most prescribed drugs can be classified according to their structure and mechanism of action at the molecular level.  In this course, basic concepts of enzyme action such as the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis, the Michaelis-Menten and pre-equilibrium equations, steady-state approximations, allostery and cooperativity will first be covered.  Major classes of therapeutic targets will then be discussed with an emphasis on their normal biochemical roles that are exploited for therapeutic intervention.  The mechanisms of action of drugs acting on enzymes (antiviral and antimicrobial agents) on nucleic acids and on the cytoskeleton (anti-cancer agents) will be of special interest.  The concept of rational cancer therapy will also be covered with examples of drugs targeting growth factors signalling pathways that are dysregulated in cancers.

PHM325H1 Aboriginal Issues in Health and Healing

This course examines the many issues surrounding the health of aboriginal people living in Canada.  During the 13 weeks of class, students will come to understand the present day health issues of aboriginal peoples from the perspective of their historical and political context and the effects of health care policy.  The many highly qualified speakers from the Aboriginal community and its focus on health and healing process make this course unique in the university.  Optional, but strongly recommended, field trips include a “medicine walk” on the Six Nations reserve in which students will be able to see firsthand the source of some of the herbal preparations that are used in healing, and a purification (sweat) lodge ceremony outside the city.  The course is enriched by its association between students of the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy and the Aboriginal Studies program in the Faculty of Arts and Science, many of whom are of Aboriginal origin.

PHM383H1 Antimicrobial Stewardship

Antimicrobial Stewardship is an inter-disciplinary, multi-faceted approach to optimize antimicrobial use. While the ultimate goal of Antimicrobial Stewardship is to improve patient outcome, appropriate and effective use of antimicrobials is an important component to control antimicrobial resistance, minimize unintended consequences such as C. difficile infections, and to contain health care costs. As of 2013, presence of an active Antimicrobial Stewardship Program has been made a Required Operating Practice for acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities by Accreditation Canada.  This course expands and deepens knowledge gained from the Year 2 Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy and Microbiology courses, with an emphasis on clinical application within the antimicrobial stewardship context. It will introduce students to the principles of antimicrobial stewardship to facilitate rational selection of antimicrobial regimens; stewardship interventions; quality improvement methods; as well as program development, implementation and evaluation. The course culminates to a team proposal presentation for an antimicrobial stewardship program based on a fictitious institution’s profile. Each team is tasked with convincing a panel of judges, who in practice are antimicrobial stewardship clinicians or program executives, to support their proposed program.

PHM389H1 Research Project I

This elective course is designed to introduce students to the philosophy, methodology and performance of research in scientific fields offered by faculty members who hold graduate appointments in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences.  The research will involve the review of pertinent scientific literature and the generation of new information.  Depending upon the project and the supervisor, the research may be conducted in a number of settings, e.g., in a laboratory at the Faculty, in a hospital, community pharmacy, pharmaceutical company, or in an office.  Fields of study are wide ranging and include drug delivery, drug metabolism, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacy administration and pharmacoeconomics, radiopharmacy, receptor biology, therapeutics, and toxicology.  The course includes working in the laboratory (or other relevant setting), reading, searching for literature, performance of research and writing of the research report.  Often times, the research may result in a joint publication with the supervisor. Students are expected to spend a minimum of 78 hours on the course, and are required to obtain prior written consent of the supervisor and course coordinator.

Winter Term Selective Courses

PHM350H1 Pharmacotherapy in Ambulatory Care

Ambulatory care pharmacists are accountable for addressing drug therapy needs and developing sustained partnerships with patients in an outpatient environment. They practice in primary care, family health teams, community pharmacies and specialty clinics. This practice can be independent or in a collaboration with other health care providers. Ambulatory care pharmacists require the knowledge and skills to triage, prescribe, administer and monitor medication therapies. They provide pharmaceutical care to patients with a variety of medical conditions and levels of acuity.  This course will provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values to be a contemporary ambulatory care practitioner with an emphasis on ambulatory care sensitive conditions, preventative care, minor ailments and natural health products.

Prerequisite:  PHM101H1; PHM105H1; PHM146H1; PHM201H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1; PHM205H1; PHM206H1; PHM230H1; PHM305H1

PHM351H1 Pharmacotherapy in Institutional Care

Institutional pharmacists are accountable for addressing drug therapy needs with patients in an in-patient environment. Students will learn to apply therapeutics that are commonly seen when caring for a hospitalized patient. Some of the topics included are: IV therapeutics (fluid and electrolytes), acute pain management, VTE prophylaxis, diabetic ketoacidosis and in-hospital management of diabetes, postoperative medication management. Topics may include a brief introduction to critical care and some aspects of emergency medicine.  Aspects of patient and medication safety will be integrated into the course.

Prerequisite:  PHM101H1; PHM113H1; PHM140H1; PHM141H1; PHM142H1; PHM144H1; PHM146H1; PHM305H1; PHM340H1

PHM352H1 Pharmacotherapy in Older Adults

Growth in the proportion of the population over age 65 is expected to place significant demands on the health care system. Pharmacists must be prepared to effectively manage the pharmacotherapy in older patients in order to achieve optimal individual and health system outcomes. This 26-hour selective course will prepare students for their future roles in geriatric practice through the development of specific competencies in the knowledge and application of pharmaceutical care for older adults.  This course will cover demographics, biology of aging, socioeconomics, ethical issues, informed consent, elder abuse, and beliefs and barriers regarding health care and medication use in older individuals. Communication issues, unique needs of caring for seniors, and barriers to medication taking will also be addressed.  Specific pharmacotherapy of conditions prevalent in the elderly, including movement disorders, dementia, urinary incontinence, and specific drug-induced illnesses will be covered.  This course will rely on case-based discussions to enable students to develop skills integral to patient assessment and optimizing drug therapy in the older adult with complicated disease and medication history.

Prerequisite:  PHM101H1; PHM143H1; PHM144H1; PHM145H1; PHM146H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1; PHM205H1; PHM301H1; PHM302H1

PHM353H1 Pharmacotherapy in Critical Care

This course is designed to expose students to hospital-based clinical pharmacy practice, with a focus on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).  Various topics that encompass commonly encountered clinical conditions of patients in the ICU will be discussed, with an emphasis on the role of pharmacotherapy.  Students will also be introduced to the role of multidisciplinary team members integral to the ICU including the respiratory therapist, nurse, ethicist and intensivist (pending availability).  The course will be taught using traditional classroom lectures, case-based discussions, small-group learning projects, and self-directed learning.  Student participation both within the classroom and online, and in group work assignments is expected.

PHM354H1 Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics

This course builds on general knowledge and skills gained in the first three years of pharmacotherapy courses.  It allows students to gain the fundamental pharmacotherapeutic knowledge and practice skills to care for patients from the neonatal period to the adolescent years.  In addition to covering evidence based pharmacotherapy of several pediatric conditions, the course integrates relevant normal development and physiology (fetal, neonatal, infant, child and adolescent), pathophysiology, clinical pharmacokinetics, medication safety, poison prevention, and patient (through the ages) and caregiver education.  Each week the course will consist of two hours of didactic lectures and group case discussions primarily presented by clinical pharmacy staff from Sickkids Hospital.  The course allows students to effectively manage pediatric patients’ medication therapy in selected pediatric conditions, prepares the student for pediatric direct patient care (DPC) and non-direct patient care (NDPC) rotations, and encourages a career in pediatric pharmacy practice.

Prerequisite:  PHM101H1; PHM113H1; PHM144H1; PHM146H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1

PHM355H1 Pharmacotherapy in Women’s Health

Medications used in the care of Canadian women are amongst the most commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals.  This course is designed to allow the student to obtain fundamental pharmacotherapeutic knowledge of medications used from menarche to menopause.  This course will encourage students to develop a practice that provides quality care to women.

Prerequisite:  PHM146H1; PHM202H1; PHM2061H1

PHM360H1 Personalized Medicine

This course builds upon fundamental pharmacokinetic concepts taught in the first and second years in order to understand, describe and predict the sources of intra- and inter-individual variability in drug disposition and response in different patient population groups. The course is designed for students to understand the underlying basic principles used to individualize drug and dosage regimens for patients based on genetic, physiological and environmental factors. Critical evaluation of evidence and review of current guidelines or recommendations for dose or drug adjustments based on genetic factors and the potential for drug-diet, drug-drug or drug-disease interactions will be covered.   The format of the course to address these issues will be student presentations and in-class discussion of specific questions that are designed to illustrate these points.

Prerequisite:  PHM140H1; PHM144H1

PHM361H1 Latest Developments in Drugs and Biologics

This course will cover all aspects of new drugs and biologics approved in the preceding 12 month period, together with those that entered phase III clinical trials during the same period. This is a unique course in the curriculum that will discuss the latest on new drugs and biologics. Approximately 50% of the lectures will be delivered using traditional methods, covering new drugs and for the remainder of the classes, pre selected pharmacy student groups will present their projects in new  drugs and biologics. Instruction materials and reference materials will be drawn from Health Canada, FDA, scientific literature and drug information files.

PHM362H1 Assessing the Bioavailability and Bioequivalence of Medicial Drug Products (not offered in 2017-18.)

This course introduces regulatory, clinical, statistical and logistical considerations in assessing the relative bioavailabilities of formulations.  A heavy emphasis is placed on clinical trial design, and biostatistics involved in second entry drug applications to regulatory bodies.  Students will learn about the methods, regulations, techniques, pharmacokinetics, and biostatistics involved in creating bioequivalence studies, at an introductory level.  The course has a heavy mathematical bias with a component dedicated to mathematical modeling and basic programming in R-project, an open source statistical package.  After taking this course, students will understand the steps required to set up single-dose or steady-state pilot and pivotal bioequivalence trials using parallel, crossover and replicate designs.  Students will be able to take a data set of plasma concentrations and be able to process and interpret the results of the trial.  Students will gain a deeper understanding and context of the regulatory differences involved in generic drug testing between Canada, the United States and Europe.

Prerequisite:  PHM141H1; PHM144H1; PHM241H1

PHM370H1 Community Pharmacy Management

A comprehensive program outlining the issues and topics which are critical in the successful operation of a community pharmacy practice including:  selection of organizational structures, demographic review, financial analysis, business plan development, purchasing and financing a community pharmacy, operational workflow, financial management, risk management and insurance, inventory purchasing procedures and inventory management, pricing decisions, marketing strategy, advertising, sales promotion and salesmanship, ethics, security and general business policies.  Building on the basic principles taught in PHM215H1, this course expands into a case based learning application of business administration which offer students exposure to Finance, Operations, Organizational Behaviour, Innovation and General Management as applied to the field of Pharmacy and Healthcare. The cases will provide students with the opportunity to develop skills for effective analysis, evaluation and problem-solving. To do this, students will learn about basic analytical tools (e.g., projections, break-evens, communication, organization theory) and will then be required to apply these tools using case methodology. Students will be given the opportunity to practice decision-making with imperfect information under time constraints and develop business writing skills. Preparation of a detailed business plan will also be a mandatory component for this course.

Prerequisite:  PHM215H1

PHM371H1 Institutional Pharmacy Practice Management

This course builds on the administrative, managerial and human resource principles presented in the prerequisite course, PHM215H1, with specific application to managing a pharmacy practice in an institutional setting. By means of lectures, case studies and assigned readings, students will explore institutional responses to health system changes and the “managed care environment”, the re-engineering of pharmacy practice, strategies for outcome and process improvement, workload management systems and professional accountability.  Other topics will include the role of Pharmacy within the larger hospital environment including the interdisciplinary team and the importance of Family and Patient Centered Care.

Prerequisite:  PHM215H1

 

Winter Term Elective Courses

PHM322H1 Patient/Medication Safety

This course will look at patient safety and the potential for medication incidents from two aspects: (1) the medication-use system (e.g., prescribing, order entry, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of drug therapy); and (2) professional practice (e.g. preventable adverse drug events). It will build on topics previously covered in the curriculum, as well as additional materials related to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute, and the concept of continuous quality improvement in pharmacy practice.

PHM381H1 Medical Imaging for Pharmacists

This course will discuss the principles and applications of medical imaging in patient care. There will be an emphasis on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine imaging (SPECT and PET) but other imaging technologies will be discussed including MRI, ultrasound, X ray, mammography and CT. These technologies are applied in diagnosing infectious disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, hepatobiliary and renal dysfunction, and neurological disorders. The emerging role of molecular imaging using PET and SPECT in selecting patients for personalized medicines for cancer as well as monitoring response to these new therapies will be introduced.

Prerequisite:  PHM202H1; PHM204H1; PHM241H1; PHM301H1

PHM382H1 Nanomedicines in Oncology

This course covers a range of topics that pertain to the development and application of nanomedicines in oncology.  Students will gain an understanding of the biological barriers to drug delivery in oncology as well as the tremendous heterogeneity in cancer and the challenges this presents for treatment.  The concepts of passive and active targeting of nanomedicines will be covered with critical assessment of the enhanced permeability and retention effect.  A detailed overview of the most advanced nanotechnology-platforms for drug delivery (i.e., liposomes, block copolymer micelles and polymer-drug conjugates) will be provided with additional discussion of new emerging platforms.  The integration of imaging in drug development and development of theranostics and therapeutic-diagnostic pairs will also be discussed.  Special emphasis on critical evaluation of scientific literature and pre-clinical/clinical studies will be made throughout the course.

PHM384H1 Teaching and Learning

The educator role for pharmacists is broad and involves diverse roles, including teaching patients, designing and delivering continuing education, mentoring/precepting students, and educating other care professionals in small and large group settings. In order to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to fulfill this mandate, a course in educational theories and methods is important. Material from this course will be applied in a practical sense to pharmacy practice courses and experiential learning activities. Specific topics to be covered in the course will include: development of behavioural learning objectives, learning theories, teaching techniques for various audiences, assessment tools, methods, and techniques and educational practice as a professional.

PHM385H1 Diabetes Care

This course provides many of the theoretical and practical aspects of diabetes management needed in providing comprehensive diabetes care.  The goals and objectives of the course are modeled on the requirements for the Certified Diabetes Educator Exam and will provide much of background needed in preparation for writing this exam.  Topics covered in the course include (but are not limited to):  review of the diabetes disease processes, nutrition and exercise management of diabetes, self-care strategies and strategies to reduce the risk of complications due to diabetes, management of hypo- and hyperglycemia, appropriate blood glucose monitoring, management of diabetes in special situations such as diabetes in pregnancy, in children, adolescents and the elderly, and management of complex patients.

Prerequisite:  PHM101H1; PHM105H1; PHM201H1; PHM202H1; PHM203H1; PHM204H1; PHM205H1; PHM206H1; PHM301H1; PHM302H1; PHM305H1

PHM386H1 Mental Health and Addiction

This course is designed to provide students interested in mental health and addictions with a broader knowledge base in the field. It will introduce students to the mental health and addiction system in Canada, the role of stigma in accessing and providing care, the role of psychotherapy and the evidence base for specific modalities, including cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), mindfulness therapy, and motivational interviewing. The course will also address issues such as medication adherence and mental health first aid. Students will also be taught how to use validated scales to assess for psychotropic-induced movement disorders. The course will introduce additional mental health disorders/issues, not covered in PHM302H1 including psychotropic medication use in pregnancy and lactation and child and adolescent psychiatry. It will also cover key substance use disorders/issues in more depth than was possible in PHM302H1, including harm reduction principles, cannibis use (recreational and medicinal), recreational drugs and anabolic steroids. The course will be taught using a variety of techniques including didactic lectures, observed patient interviews (video-simulation), case-based learning and interactive group learning.

Prerequisite:    PHM302H1

PHM387H1 Global Health

Global Health is defined as an area for study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide by reducing avoidable diseases, disabilities, and deaths.  This elective will introduce students to selected foundational competencies in global health education such as the global burden of disease, social and economic determinants of health, the globalization of health and healthcare, global health governance, human rights and equity.  Students will discuss practical and ethical challenges in delivering care in low-resource settings, describe tools and strategies to address the needs of specific vulnerable populations and examine cultural awareness and its importance in caring for diverse vulnerable populations.

PHM388H1 Minor Ailments

The management of minor, self-limiting and self-diagnosed ailments such as rashes, cold sores and hay fever is within the scope of practice for pharmacists.  This course is designed to build and enhance students’ knowledge and skills necessary for contemporary and future pharmacy practice in the area of self-care and minor ailments.  This course will cover the management of conditions not covered in other courses and will provide the students’ with a comprehensive understanding of non-prescription and prescription therapeutics as they relate to patient self-medication and minor ailments.  Emphasis will be placed on the role and responsibility of the pharmacist in accurately assessing and triaging patients, determining the appropriate use of non-prescription and prescription drugs, by determining when to follow-up, refer, and how to document the patient’s care.  The student will be equipped with the clinical skills, confidence, and tools needed to gather and convey reliable minor ailment information to patients and healthcare providers in an effort to effectively and confidently assess and treat patients.  With this knowledge and a structured framework for conducting a minor ailments assessment, students will be able to help patients make appropriate decisions and achieve optimal outcomes from their selected, evidence-based therapy.  The main course material will be presented as case-based didactic lectures; student participation in class discussions and interactive classroom activities will be expected.  There will be an opportunity for application of the concepts discussed in lectures via simulated patient counselling activities, case-based group learning, and self-directed activities.

PHM389H1 Research Project I

This elective course is designed to introduce students to the philosophy, methodology and performance of research in scientific fields offered by faculty members who hold graduate appointments in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences.  The research will involve the review of pertinent scientific literature and the generation of new information.  Depending upon the project and the supervisor, the research may be conducted in a number of settings, e.g., in a laboratory at the Faculty, in a hospital, community pharmacy, pharmaceutical company, or in an office.  Fields of study are wide ranging and include drug delivery, drug metabolism, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacy administration and pharmacoeconomics, radiopharmacy, receptor biology, therapeutics, and toxicology.  The course includes working in the laboratory (or other relevant setting), reading, searching for literature, performance of research and writing of the research report.  Often times, the research may result in a joint publication with the supervisor. Students are expected to spend a minimum of 78 hours on the course, and are required to obtain prior written consent of the supervisor and course coordinator.

PHM391H1 Current Compounding Topics and Practice Issues

Pharmacists are expected to understand and comply with Health Canada’s directives (policies) regarding the distinction between manufacturing and compounding of medications, and with relevant federal and provincial/territorial legislation. Pharmacy graduates should be able to interpret literature, comply with current compounding guidelines and regulations, assess formulation risks, and make appropriate decisions on how to safely compound, label, and choose the correct administration route for compounded products. This course builds upon knowledge and skills gained in PHM141H1 Pharmaceutics, PHM212H1 Research Methods in Pharmacy and PHM241H1 Topics in Pharmaceutical Quality and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, and will explore core principles of sterile and non-sterile compounding in pharmacy. The course will cover a broad range of hazardous and non-hazardous parenteral and oral products with respect to compounding and safety aspects whenever such preparations and products are intended for human use. Students will develop foundational knowledge in compounding methods, safe use of parenteral and oral compounded products, parenteral routes of administration, stability and solubility, and managing product shortages.

Prerequisite:  PHM141H1; PHM212H1; PHM241H1